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what is foundation,why provide it?

FOUNDATION Foundations provide support to the structure, transfers the loads from the structure to the earth (soil). But the layer at which the foundation transfers the load shall have an sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics. There are several types of foundations depend various considerations such as- Total load from the superstructure.  Soil conditions. Water level. Noise and vibrations sensitivity. Available resources. Time-frame of the project. Cost. Broadly speaking, foundations can be classified as shallow foundations and deep foundations. Shallow footings are usually used when the bearing capacity of the surface soil is adequate to carry the loads imposed by a structure. On the other hand, deep foundations are usually used when the bearing capacity of the surface soil is not sufficient to carry the loads imposed by a structure. So, the loads have to be transferred to a deeper level where the soil layer has a higher bearing capacity.

Do you know Load carry Capacity of the column?

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  Axial load of column will depend upon  Percentage of reinforcement and column size for various mixes and steel.  steel grade fy 550  GRADE OF CONCRETE& Axial Load carrying Capacity in KN (P) M15, P= (3.625 p + 6) b D/1500 M20, P= (3.605 p + 8) b D/1500 M25, P= (3.585 p + 10) b D/1500 M30, P= (3.565 p + 12) b D/1500 M35, P= (3.545 p + 14) b D/1500 M40, P= (3.525 p + 16) b D/1500 steel grade fy 500  GRADE OF CONCRETE &Axial Load carrying Capacity in KN (P) M15 ,P= (3.29 p + 6) b D/1500 M20, P= (3.27 p + 8) b D/1500 M25, P= (3.25 p + 10) b D/1500 M30, P= (3.23 p + 12) b D/1500 M35, P= (3.21 p + 14) b D/1500 M40, P= (3.19 p + 16) b D/1500 https://civilengineersgyan.blogspot.com/2020/05/cement.html For steel grade fy 415  GRADE OF CONCRETE  &Axial Load carrying Capacity in KN (P) M15 ,P= (2.7205 p + 6) b D/1500 M20, P= (2.7005 p + 8) b D/1500 M25 ,P= (2.6805 p + 10) b D/1500 M30, P= (2.6605 p + 12) b D/1500 M35, P= (2.6405 p + 14) b D/1500 M40, P= (2.6205 p + 16) b D/1500 P =

Slump cone test for workability ?

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Slump cone test for workability ?  Concrete slump test or slump cone test is to compose the consistency or    workability    of concrete mix ready at the laboratory or the construction site during the procedure of the work. Slump-cone-test-detail   slump cone test is the most simple workability test for concrete, involves general cost and provides instant results. Generally  concrete slump cone test value  is used to search the workability, which indicates w/c ratio, but there are more factors including, mixing methods, dosage, admixtures    properties of materials  etc. also effect the concrete slump value. Slump cone test propertises The  concrete slump cone test  quantify the consistency of fresh  concrete  previous  it sets. It is featured to check the  workability  of freshly ready mix  concrete , and therefore the ease with which  concrete  flows in casting time. It can also be used as an indicator of an inaccurate mixed batch. image source-google| image by  Engineer Moi

what is Autolevel in civil engineering ?

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 what is Autolevel in civil engineering ?  Autolevel introduction    AutoLevel  is a Professional Leveling Tool used by , Builders, Land Surveying Professionals, or the  Civil Engineer who demands accurate leveling every time.. Autolevel fractures  AutoLevel set up fast, are easy to use, and save time and money on every job he gives me correct level. AutoLevel surveying instruments for Civil Engineering students and construction professionals is a learning instrument. Autolevel  details The big problem is that many people are not unable to use  AutoLevel  , it's not hard to learn its just not easily available, now with AutoLevel surveying instrument we are going to solve that problem, civil engineering students and construction professionals can learn Autolevel for free from the comfort of your house. image source-google| image by rajib_dey@aol.com jib_dey@aol.com Autolevel parts  1.Tripod  2 . Autolevel instrument 3.various part of Autoleve

what is water cement ratio?

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what is water cement ratio ? The  ratio during  the weight of  water  to the weight of  cement  in   concrete mix  is called  Water Cement  ratio (w/c ratio) . How to calculate the quantity of  water  for mix Concrete ? Normally, the   water cement ratio  during  0.4 to 0.6 as per Indian standard code . We take 0.42 as a  ratio  of Water cement.  calculation Water Cement Ratio?  We don’t  calculate correct the Water Cement Ratio. It is selected from various workability test based on the , transportation, structural members, concrete strength , selection of aggregation etc. At Site Level, we can make use of the below calculation for the nominal mix concrete. Water Cement Ratio IS 10262 (2009) Code Chart  image source-google| image by happho calculation of Water Quantity for nominal  Concrete mix. As you can see from  Chart, the water cement Ratio varies from 0.4 to 0.7 depending on exposure condition. If we need to calculate Water quantity for concrete, fir

what is civil engineering?

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what is  Civil engineering ?  Civil engineering  is professional engineering .   Civil Engineering  includes   supervising  creating maintaining planning, designing,and  constructing,  which include facilities compulsory to modern life like  schools,highways, bridges and tunnels, hospitals, airports and other buildings, sewage systems and water treatment facilities. Subsequently, the course also involves protecting the   environmental  and public health as well as improving existing infrastructure. According to a new research report by Global Market Insights, Inc, the  Civil Engineer  Market size is expected to grow up to USD 11.72 trillion by 2025 what is symbol of civil engineers? symbol of civil engineer is  Iron Ring(north America) . The ring symbolizes the pride which civil  engineers  have in their profession, while cumulatively reminding them of their humility. The ring serves as a reminder to the civil  engineer  and others of the  engineer's  obligation t

concrete strength? ,compressive strength of concrete cube, increase the strength of the concrete

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Concrete strength  water, aggregates and cement and  some times admixtures is one of the ingredient of concrete. mixing all materials in right proportions produces concrete. Accordingly only cement  is not a building material, it is the concrete which is a  good building material. find a good concrete strength these point is consider. a) Ratio of cement to mixing water b) Ratio of cement, aggregates and sand properly. c) shape, strength, and  grading, surface texture ,stiffness of aggregate particles. d) Maximum size of aggregate use.   concrete Strength is directly respective to the structure of the hydrated cement paste. Air in concrete produces voids so use vibrator always. Excess of water in concrete evaporate leave the voids in the concrete so always consider water cement ratio .  hence, as the water cement ratio increases, the porosity of the cement paste in the concrete also increases. As the porosity increases, the compressive strength of the concrete alway